our dojo history

Much of this dojo history was borrowed from From Point Zero to Ground Zero: An Excavation of Twelve Indigenous Chang Moo Kwan Forms, a thesis submitted by Sensei Jesse Boyd in partial fulfillment of the requirements for black belt rank in the traditional art of Chang Moo Kwan under the authority of Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee’s last students.1 Sensei Boyd received his black belt in Chang Moo Kwan on April 17, 2015 in San Pedro, California following the submission of this thesis and a grueling physical test that involved one of his Cheonjikido students as the uke.

The story begins long ago in Manchuria:

byung-in yoon

Manchuria, Northeast China
Manchuria, Northeast China

Our dojo history can be traced back to when a government employee appointed at the end of the Korean Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) was pushed out of his position by Imperial Japan’s 1909 invasion of the Korean Peninsula. To avoid trouble with the Japanese forces, Young-hyun Yoon took his family, including three sons, and fled to Manchuria. 2 There, the family fell into financial hardship, so the eldest son, Myoung-keun Yoon, worked hard and eventually secured ownership of a local distillery. Later, it was Myoung-keun that brought the family out of poverty, and he eventually fathered three sons himself, the middle child being In Yoon Byung who was born on May 18, 1920.3

While attending elementary school, In Yoon Byung became fascinated with Chinese Chuan-fa 4 as he watched it practiced in a nearby dojang and asked the instructor, a Mongolian Grandmaster, if he could join the class. 5 “The instructor firmly refused, for in China, the teachings of martial arts were for Chinese natives only and kept secret from all outsiders.”6 Grandmaster Kim Pyung Soo7 once relayed a story that he heard from three independent witnesses at three different times in his life; and all three of these witnesses personally knew and trained with Byung at some point prior to the Korean War:

Byung In Yoon could not stay away from the school. During the day, he would jump up and down in front of the school’s windows glimpsing what he could of classes. The instructor would catch him and sent [sic.] him away from the school. Determined to somehow be a part of the school, Byung In Yoon returned. This time he cleaned the area around the dojang and in front of the dojang entrance where the shoes of the instructor and all of the students lay. He meticulously arranged the shoes in neat, orderly rows. He returned every day to this task. The instructor came out of the dojang surprised to find this orderly and well kept area, day after day. He noticed that someone had also rearranged his shoes so that the toes pointed away from the entrance, ready for him to easily slip into and walk away. He was very intrigued and tried to find the student who was so dedicated. He found that it was not his students, but the little Korean boy who was determined to show his sincerity. The instructor was so impressed with Byung In Yoon’s tenacity and sincerity that he made an exception and allowed him to join the school. Never before had a Korean national been accepted to learn the Chinese martial art of Chu’an Fa.8

Grandmasters Park Chul Hee & Hong Jong Pyo were students of In Yoon Byung in Korea. This photo was taken in 1983 in Seoul; note the white gloves on Pyo’s hands.
Grandmasters Park Chul Hee & Hong Jong Pyo were students of In Yoon Byung in Korea. This photo was taken in 1983 in Seoul; note the white gloves on Pyo’s hands.

Byung studied Chuan-fa from the Mongolian until he graduated from high school and was sent by his family to study at Nihon University in Japan. One of his cousins, Yoon Byung-bu, who grew up with him in Manchuria, described Byung as “very bright, sincere, quiet, always helping people. Typical martial artist.”9 Moreover, “He was very strong. If he ever had to fight, he would never seriously hurt anyone. He just did enough to make them stop.”10

During his childhood, while studying Chuan-fa, another story has been passed down concerning a severe injury that Byung suffered to his right hand. During a cold Manchurian winter, when the Siberian winds typically blow down from the North, Byung was huddled around a neighborhood fire with some friends and was shoved forward as a joke into the flames. To prevent his body from being burned, he planted his right hand into the hot coals and leapt up to safety. No one was around to help, so he ended up losing the ends of his fingers. To hide this injury, In Yoon Byung would wear white gloves in public and while teaching martial arts classes. Later, some of his students would wear white gloves as a respectful tribute to their teacher.11

Nankeen Toyama (1888-1966)
Kanken Toyama (1888-1966)

In Yoon Byung must have been a good academic student, for he was the middle son, and usually it was the eldest who received preferential treatment in Asian culture and was sent out to study abroad. At Nihon University in Tokyo, he majored in Colonial Agriculture from 1939-1941 and had the privilege of meeting and training with Kanken Toyama (1888-1966) of Okinawan karate lore, a faculty member at the university at that time and the sensei for the university karate club. Toyama had studied the Shuri-te karate tradition under Anko Itosu12 for eighteen years and was appointed the title of shihandai (i.e. assistant master) to Itosu in 1907 at the Okinawa Teacher’s College. Also, Toyama and Gichin Funakoshi were the only two students to ever be granted the title of shihanshi (i.e. protege) by Itosu.13 Anyway, Toyama also received supplemental instruction from Kanryo Higaonna (1853-1915), the founder of the Naha-te karate tradition. Around 1924, Toyama moved his family to Taiwan; and there, he studied Chinese Chuan-fa for seven years. In 1930, he relocated to Tokyo and opened his first dojo, calling it Shudokan. There, he simply taught an eclectic blend of what he had learned from Itosu, Higaonna, and Chuan-fa. Toyama never claimed to have originated a new style of karate, and like Funakoshi, he never referred to his system by the name of his dojo.

In Yoon Byung at Nihon University
In Yoon Byung at Nihon University

How Byung actually met Toyama is quite interesting; and the circumstances surrounding this happenstance encounter clearly indicate how a spirit of cheonjikido pervaded the Korean’s martial arts training and teaching from early on.  While studying at Nihon University, Byung was often seen during lunch using a large tree as a makiwara post, punching and kicking it day after day until the tree itself started to lean.14 While Byung pretty much kept to himself, some of his Korean friends joined the university karate club supervised by Kanken Toyama.  After some time, one of the Korean students started missing practices at the club so he could spend more  time with his girlfriend. This, of course, angered the Japanese students who considered it a great privilege for the Koreans to be included in the class. There was already racial tension on the campus, and Japanese gangs would often tussle with Korean gangs. Fueled by this, the Japanese karate club students pursued the slacker and beat him up pretty badly. The Korean victim knew about Byung and his Chuan-fa and had often seen him outside practicing in the courtyard. He begged Byung to help him:  “You are Korean, I am Korean, will you please help me?”15 In Yoon Byung agreed, and at the next scheduled beatdown, he showed up on the scene and quickly sprang into action using the graceful Chinese Chuan-fa he had learned growing up in Manchuria. He skillfully deflected and evaded the Japanese karate students’ strikes and kicks and fought off many attackers simultaneously, so much so that the Japanese attackers gave up and ran back to tell their teacher about what had transpired. Toyama, revealing his character, responded in a way completely foreign to the typical egocentric martial arts instructor of today. He actually invited In Yoon Byung to sit down with him and explain about “the skillful non-karate martial art he had used against his students.”16  He shared with Toyama about studying Chuan-fa in Manchuria; and Anko Itosu’s shihandai immediately appreciated this background, for he, too, had studied Chuan-fa in Taiwan for seven years. The two immediately decided to exchange knowledge: Byung agreed to teach and refresh Kanken Toyama in the art of Chuan-fa if the karate master would teach him Shudokan Karate. Byung’s skill level was so advanced that Toyama soon awarded him the rank of Yondan and made him captain of the university karate club. Toyama held the rank of Godan at that time, so this made Byung his highest ranking student. Such a promotion was truly special; it would have been a rare blessing for a Japanese student and even more unheard of for a Korean national. Under Toyama, Byung would have certainly learned the five Heian/Pinan kata as well as Naihanchi and Kushanku.17

Byung (center) poses with his students during a training session (circa 1947). Standing on the front row to the far right looks very much like Nam Suk Lee.
Byung (center) poses with his students during a training session (circa 1947). Standing on the front row to the far right looks very much like Nam Suk Lee.

On August 15, 1945, the Japanese surrendered to the Allies, thus marking the end of World War II and the end of the 36-year occupation of Korea. Finally, In Yoon Byung could return to the home of his fathers. He followed two of his Korean friends from the Nihon University karate club to the Chung-yang Rhee neighborhood of Seoul. One of these friends invited Byung to help teach an eclectic mixture of Chuan-fa and karate at the Cho-Sun Yun Moo Kwan judo school which he did for six months. Then, he was invited to start a class at the Cho-Sun Central YMCA in Seoul sometime in 1946 at a time when martial artists were used as unofficial law enforcement deputies to help insure safety on the streets of the post-WWII Korean capital. It’s interesting that in one of Kanken Toyama’s instructor directories, published sometime in 1946 or 1947, In Yoon Byung is listed as the “Chief Instructor at the Cho-Sun YMCA” with the rank of 4th dan.18

At the Seoul YMCA, Byung originally labeled his style Kwon Bop Kong Soo Do, a Korean phrase that literally translates: “the way of fist law AND empty hand.” This designation not only pays tribute to the spirit of eclecticism that Byung wove into his art from its outset, but in its literary form, one can see his conviction that a superior martial style reflects a proper blending of hard art (i.e. fist law) with soft art (i.e. empty hand), certainly an outflow of his training background. Later, Byung would suggest that the style be called Chang Moo Kwan (said change would establish itself more fully under Byung’s protege, Nam Suk Lee), and in early years, the curriculum was complex and the training was severe. “In the beginning, there were 500 members, but three months later, there were only 180 left.”19 Byung’s style reportedly consisted of a unique blend of Shudokan karate and northern Chuan-fa. The techniques were said to have a smooth yet hard appearance when practiced or demonstrated.20 Supposedly, practitioners were required to perform several Chuan-fa forms, including Dan Kwon, Doju San, Jang Kwon, Taijo Kwon, and Palgi Kwon, as well as at least two staff forms, one created by Byung himself and another brought over from Shudokan.21

Byung (diamond) is seen here at the 2nd CMK demonstration in Seoul on February 2, 1949. Nam Suk Lee (square) took over the Cho-Sun YMCA dojo as Byung’s duties increased.
Byung (diamond) is seen here at the 2nd CMK demonstration in Seoul on February 2, 1949. Nam Suk Lee (square) took over the Cho-Sun YMCA dojo as Byung’s duties increased.

Sometime before 1950, Byung was appointed faculty at both Sung-Kyun Kwan University and Kyoung-Nong Agricultural College and taught his unique blend of Chuan-fa and karate at both places.22 He was also offered a job as a bodyguard for Korean President Syngmahn Rhee but turned it down. Supposedly, he wasn’t able to properly salute the President because of the maimed fingers on his right hand from the aforementioned childhood injury, and he wanted to avoid that embarrassment.23 With many new responsibilities, Byung appointed Nam Suk Lee, one of his top students, as the primary instructor at the Cho-Sun YMCA.

An Elderly In Yoon Byung Trapped in North Korea (circa 1980)
An Elderly In Yoon Byung Trapped in North Korea (circa 1980)

In June of 1950, with the onset of the Korean War, many dojos were thrown into turmoil as students and teachers alike were called up to duty. During the conflict, In Yoon Byung went missing; and for many years, he was thought to have perished. In 2005, however, some information was recovered concerning Byung’s family by Kim Pyung Soo, an original student of Byung and Lee and a notable personality in terms of preserving Byung’s influence in Chang Moo Kwan forms and self-defense technique. Apparently, Byung was lured under duress to North Korea in 1950 by his elder brother, a Captain in the Communist North Korean Army who showed up unexpectedly and demanded that his brother accompany him north. On November 25, 1951, as a result of peace talks between North Korea and the United Nations, the Korean Peninsula was officially divided at the 38th parallel: North Korea would control the north part of the peninsula (with Soviet Union occupation) and South Korea would control the south (with U.S. occupation). During this time, In Yoon Byung showed up in a POW camp on Gojae-do Island. As part of a prisoner exchange agreement between the North and the South, POWs were given the option to decide where they wanted to go. Byung opted to return south, but as he was being escorted off the prison grounds, North Korean POW soldiers supposedly attacked him and prevented him from leaving. The option to go back home was lost, and as a result, Byung’s activities are completely unknown from this time until 1966. His Chang Moo Kwan students lost all contact with him. From 1966 to mid-1967, Byung may have taught Gyuck Sul (i.e. “special combat strategy”, an eclectic art) to North Korean special forces under compulsion, possibly as a prisoner of war. In 1967, he was reportedly told that Gyuck Sul could not be taught as an international sport and was then sent to work in a concrete factory in the North Korean city of Cheonjin, where he allegedly died of lung cancer in 1983.24

Nam Suk Lee sits to In Yoon Byung’s left at the first Chang Moo Kwan promotion test in Seoul on December 21, 1948.
Nam Suk Lee sits to In Yoon Byung’s left at the first Chang Moo Kwan promotion test in Seoul on December 21, 1948.

The Cho-Sun YMCA in Seoul was completely destroyed by bombs from U.S. warplanes sometime in late 1950 or early 1951. Moreover, Chang Moo Kwan instructors were scattered across the Korean peninsula training military personnel until the armistice. After the recovery of the capital by allied forces, surviving teachers started trickling back into Seoul, and training resumed at an integrated government office under Nam Suk Lee in 1953.  An extensive effort was made to find In Yoon Byung, but the search turned up empty. A body was never found, and he was declared legally dead. On October 5, 1953, Nam Suk Lee was appointed president over Byung’s style and immediately oversaw the training of 500 students and 600 government employees.25 At this time, Lee formally adopted the designation Chang Moo Kwan (lit. “building a martial arts house”) as the official style name, maintaining that “Master Yoon was considering this name prior to his disappearance.”26

nam suk lee

Karate Jutsu by Gichin Funakoshi
Karate Jutsu by Gichin Funakoshi

Nam Suk Lee was born on June 28, 1925 in Yeo Joo, about forty miles south of Seoul. In the 1930’s and during the Japanese imperialist occupation of the Korean Peninsula, his family moved to Seoul. Early on, a young Lee showed great initiative and leadership qualities in sport and academic activity. As a teenager, while sauntering down the street, he happened to stumble upon a tattered and discarded Chinese translation of of Gichin Funakoshi’s Karate Jutsu lying in the gutter. He took it home and began to pour over the text and accompanying black and white photographs. Of course, this perusal would have included in-depth breakdowns of the five Heian/Pinan kata, Kanku-dai, Naihanchi, and others. Interestingly, footprints of all seven of these traditional Okinawan forms are seen in The Twelve. Nam Suk Lee was hooked, and for him, finding that book was “point zero.”27 During this time: “If teenage Nam Suk Lee would have been discovered training by the unforgiving Japanese soldiers, death could have been the penalty.”28 Undaunted by the danger and hungry for knowledge, Lee gathered others to himself and secretly practiced with them what he had gleaned from Funakoshi’s text.  Sometimes, they would train at the school playground, or hiding behind a wall, or wherever they could be outside the gaze of the Japanese military police. In a personal interview with Grandmaster Jon Wiedenmen shortly before his death in 2000, Lee recalled many of the trials and tribulations of training during this time, one of which included secretly removing roof tiles from local buildings and breaking them with kicks and punches.29

2nd President Nam Suk Lee (center) sits with senior members of Chang Moo Kwan (circa 1957).
2nd President Nam Suk Lee (center) sits with senior members of Chang Moo Kwan (circa 1957).

In 1946, after WWII and the liberation of the Korean Peninsula from the Japanese Imperialists, In Yoon Byung started his school at the Cho-Sun YMCA. Nam Suk Lee was one of the first students, and despite having “no formal martial arts training when he met Byung,” Lee quickly became the dojo’s top student.30 Unlike the 65% of the original 500 Cho-Sun YMCA members who went AWOL, unable to handle the severity of the training, Lee stuck around and was given control of the YMCA dojo before 1950 as Byung’s responsibilities increased. And, by the age of 28, following the Korean War and Byung’s disappearance, he assumed control over all of his teacher’s schools, appointed October 5,1953 the second President of the Chang Moo Kwan, a name formally adopted by Lee though he maintained that it had been In Yoon Byung’s idea.31 Quickly, Nam Suk Lee’s  organizational skills in this new position became apparent and renowned.  Soon, he had 500 students at the central dojo and was also teaching 600 government employees.32  And, he would ultimately be responsible for Chang Moo Kwan’s strong influence in the evolution of Korean Taekwondo.

On April 11, 1955, leaders and historians from nine of Korea’s kwans (i.e. martial arts houses or traditions), including Lee, met and agreed to unite under the banner of Taekwondo, a designation that had been submitted by General Hong Hi Choi.  This name was approved because of its resemblance to Taekyon, a traditional Korean term that had been used to describe martial arts in military training, and because it described both hand and foot technique.  Although a loose organization was formed under the banner of Taekwondo, it was agreed that dojos were to maintain their independence concerning martial arts philosophy and differences in technique.  The prevailing notion was to prevent the loss of the unique expressions of each kwan.  Notwithstanding, “Tae Kwon Do has been the recognized name for Korean martial arts ever since.”33   Following this agreement, Lee became busier in his efforts to solidify the assimilation; and by 1957, he was no longer actively teaching at the original Seoul dojo.

Kim Pyung Soo (front left) sits with students from the 65th medical group of the U.S. Army in Seoul.
Kim Pyung Soo (front left) sits with students from the 65th medical group of the U.S. Army in Seoul.

Though secondary in some ways to this discussion, a bit of a tangent is worthy of mention: Kim Pyung Soo, a Sandan and one of Lee’s original students who had also learned from Byung, was placed in charge of conducting the majority of classes.34 Soo wanted to continue learning beyond Sandan, but as highest active rank, he couldn’t find anyone from the other Chang Moo Kwan dojos with enough free time to instruct him. So, he taught at Lee’s old dojang and would take classes as a student at the nearby Kangduk Won.35 Another one of Nam Suk Lee’s assistant instructors discovered this and ordered Soo to choose one dojo or the other. Kim Pyung Soo chose to stay at the Kangduk Won dojo as a student. Because of his reputation as a teacher and martial artist, many of the early Chang Moo Kwan black belts followed him.36 In 1968, Soo immigrated to Houston, Texas where he continued to teach an art that more closely preserved forms and techniques from In Yoon Byung’s Chang Moo Kwan, apart from the international sporting elements that have come to characterize Taekwondo.37 On December 18, 2005, Soo was able to arrange a meeting in Korea with In Yoon Byung’s family.  At this meeting, he learned many things about Byung’s childhood from his 2nd cousin and was shown a letter written by Byung from North Korea and dated April 4, 1974.  It was these interviews that revealed what happened to Byung in 1951, details of his life from 1966-1974 discerned from the aforementioned letter, and the circumstances of his death in 1983.38 Interestingly, some of the pictures from this meeting, as well as images of the 1974 letter can actually be seen on the website for Kim Soo Karate.39.

In 1961, Nam Suk Lee joined with other national martial arts leaders to form the Korean Taekwondo Association (KTD), a tangible result of the 1955 assimilation agreement. In 1967, he was appointed General Director of KTD, and in 1969 (and again in 1971), he would serve as Vice-President. Under Lee, Chang Moo Kwan grew to be the overwhelming influence in the evolution of Taekwondo, and it was viewed, for some time, as the leading self-defense method.

Nam Suk Lee, WTF Executive Council Member, works in his office at Chang Moo Kwan headquarters in Seoul (circa 1976).
Nam Suk Lee, WTF Executive Council Member, works in his office at Chang Moo Kwan headquarters in Seoul (circa 1976).

By 1973, the prevailing opinion was that Taekwondo needed to go international. Thus, the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) was formed in South Korea with Nam Suk Lee appointed as one of the Executive Council Members. At this critical juncture, Taekwondo started moving away from its original image of an eclectic assimilation of unique kwan expressions and began to embrace an international sporting label  as a result of the overwhelming influence of General Hong Hi Choi.  Unquestionably, though, it was Lee’s leadership which cemented Chang Moo Kwan as the foundation of the WTF, and he dedicated much of his life to the spread of this tradition, rightfully remembered as the style Patriarch. The WTF eventually set up dojos all over the world.  At it’s pinnacle in 1976, the influence of Chang Moo Kwan via the WTF was being taught in around 900 dojangs, almost half of which were outside of Korea.40

When everything went international, however, Lee soon found himself beset by administrative duties and less able to preserve the indigenous Chang Moo Kwan lineage and any of Byung’s influences.  Not only was he entertaining visitors from all over the world, but he was forced to travels to many countries, including extensive time spent in the United States; and there was little time to train.41 In fact, by the time he popped up in San Pedro, California in 1997, it is said that he hadn’t instructed a class in nearly thirty years.42 Moreover, “he had not trained in a long time and had no uniform or belt.”43

In the mid-1980’s, Nam Suk Lee moved to San Pedro, California to be closer to his children; and at this time, for whatever reason, it appears that he was no longer involved in the World Taekwondo Federation or active in the pursuit or propagation of Chang Moo Kwan. Based upon things later taught and expressed when he came out of retirement, including his dying wish that indigenous Chang Moo Kwan be preserved outside of Taekwondo, it is a fair assumption that Lee became disgruntled with the politics, the competition, and the business side of martial arts: sad eventualities that inevitably lead to questionable ethics, the watering-down of technique, and divergence from indigenous tradition. By re-locating to relative obscurity in the United States, he essentially and understandably walked away.

The CMK San Pedro Patch with Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee’s Motto
The CMK San Pedro Patch with Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee’s Motto

Years would pass before Lee again donned a dobok44 and a belt. In 1997, he was convinced to come out of retirement by a group of local Chang Moo Kwan black belts who found him in San Pedro. There, in a YMCA, he spent the last years of his life resurrecting and sowing seeds to preserve indigenous Chang Moo Kwan fundamentals, forms practiced in the original Seoul dojo, and the overriding principle of “cultivating capabilities.” This motto which appears on the official San Pedro Chang Moo Kwan patches today is undoubtedly a subtle tribute and reflection of the integrative spirit of chang moo kwan or cheonjikido originally sown by In Yoon Byung in his primary protege.

Nam Suk Lee & Jon Wiedenman San Pedro, CA (1998)
Nam Suk Lee & Jon Wiedenman
San Pedro, CA (1998)

Following a relatively routine surgery in August of 2000, a massive stroke killed Nam Suk Lee. Upon his death, Jon Wiedenman, as one of his last and highest ranking students, designated him Supreme Grandmaster and awarded him the rank of 10th Dan in Chang Moo Kwan.  At the time, I was a Nidan regularly teaching and training in North Carolina and occasionally pondering those two names at the top of my old student manual, names associated with the elusive style of Chang Moo Kwan.  I often wished I could learn some of the old CMK katas and had absolutely no idea that Nam Suk Lee had spent his last days reviving them in San Pedro.  Sheer profundity.

chang moo kwan in north carolina

Chang Moo Kwan Patch (Salisbury, NC)
Chang Moo Kwan Patch (Salisbury, NC)

Sometime during the 1960’s, before the formation of the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), a dojang opened up in Salisbury, North Carolina under the leadership of Chun Duk Ki (1940-2001), a former Korean National Fighting Champion and a Salisbury police officer who had come to America to make a better life. Ki, at some point, had been a student of Duk Sun Son, renowned Taekwondo instructor via the Chung Do Kwan lineage; and he held the rank of 7th Dan in Taekwondo at the time. Interestingly, however, Chun Duk Ki’s Salisbury dojo was named Chang Moo Kwan Taekwondo, and the original dojo patch bore the hanja characters for Chang Moo Kwan as well as the typical style symbols: a pair of dragon horses, a fist, and a shield.

Chun Duk Ki demonstrates hardcore technique.
Chun Duk Ki demonstrates hardcore technique.
Chun Duk Ki poses at his Salisbury school; note the CMK patch.
Chun Duk Ki poses at his Salisbury school; note the CMK patch.

Little accessible information regarding Ki and this dojo remains, including specifics about his connection to indigenous Chang Moo Kwan. Sadly, the few of his original students still living in the area are no longer actively training, remain pretty tightlipped, and won’t share much. Notwithstanding, from everything I have gathered, the curriculum at the Salisbury Chang Moo Kwan was hardcore, a lot like the early days of the Seoul dojo. It involved much realistic free fighting with little to no protective gear; the importance of kata was emphasized; the sporting side of Taekwondo was disdained; and the techniques were said to have a smooth yet hard appearance, like what had been described concerning In Yoon Byung’s early CMK teaching.45

Perhaps a clue as to Chung Duk Ki’s connection to Chang Moo Kwan and corresponding disdain for the big Taekwondo organizations can be seen in the mission statement of one of his original students who went on to train in other arts and presently resides in Catawba County, North Carolina, running a small dojo out of his home:  “We . . . still train as the Masters before us trained.  We do this because it is the natural way of things. This is the way the Masters intended it to be. The Martial Arts has to be a personal journey through training. We dance to our own music and answer to no one but ourselves. We are not an organization of control. We strive only to control our inner selves through training and life, nothing more and nothing less.”46. I cannot read this mission statement without thinking of In Yoon Byung and Nam Suk Lee training in Seoul in 1946.

Chun Duk Ki has his place in Chang Moo Kwan’s Green Book (bottom-left).
Chun Duk Ki has his place in Chang Moo Kwan’s Green Book (bottom-left).

By the mid 1960’s, Chun Duk Ki began turning out his own Chang Moo Kwan black belts.  Doug Bassinger and a man named Misenheimer were two of the first. By the late 1960’s, at least two more were added, Richard Yount and James Clements.47 Just before 1970, however, Chun Duk Ki moved to Canada.48 In fact, obituary records out of Edmonton, Alberta show that he died there on December 20, 2001 at the age of 61.  Any doubts about Ki’s historic connection to In Yoon Byung, Nam Suk Lee, and indigenous Chang Moo Kwan are removed by the fact that he actually shows up in Chang Moo Kwan’s 1976 Green  Book Directory on the bottom-left of page 182, listed as a Chang Moo Kwan instructor in Canada.49

the southern karate association

Evidently, Master Ki’s relocation prompted Richard Yount to found the Southern Karate Association in 1970; and it’s aim was to water and grow the Chang Moo Kwan seeds that had already been sown in Salisbury. In the South, at that time, karate was used as a general and recognizable designation for all martial arts and had almost become the idiomatic English translation for many styles, including indigenous Korean arts, that wanted to distance themselves from the watered-down sporting and competition arenas. It is my understanding that Southern Karate Association (SKA) was little more than a name change for an eclectic art with direct ties to indigenous Chang Moo Kwan.

Jesse Boyd's 1995 Carolina Karate Association Manual & Directory
Jesse Boyd’s 1995 Carolina Karate Association Manual & Directory

A subtle proof of this can be seen in a Statesville Record and Landmark newspaper ad for the annual Dogwood Festival, dated April 14, 1969. It lists “KARATE Exhibition by Chun-Duk-Ki on Courthouse Lawn 2:00 to 4:00 P.M.”50

Despite the long move, Chun Duk Ki continued to maintain ties with his North Carolina students.51 And, he oversaw Southern Karate Association promotions. In an old 1995 Carolina Karate Association Manual & Directory that I have in my possession, four individuals who would later establish the CKA in 1975 are listed as having received their Shodan ranks (two in 1974, and two in 1975) from the Southern Karate Association with Chun Duk Ki as the head instructor.52 Obviously, Chang Moo Kwan endured in North Carolina through the Southern Karate Association.

carucado

The Original Carucado Patch
The Original Carucado Patch

Around 1975, for reasons unknown, the Southern Karate Association either ceased to exist or suffered from partition.53 Four of Richard Yount’s original students, who trained under the supervision of Chun Duk Ki, either broke away to form the Carolina Karate Association (CKA) or replaced the SKA with a new designation. Perhaps this had something to do with the difficulty of maintaining a long-distance relationship with Chun Duk Ki who was busy teaching Chang Moo Kwan up in Canada. Notwithstanding, on December 1, 1975, the Carolina Karate Association was formally established, and the style was officially renamed Carucado.54

Gary Godbey, CKA Chairman (left) and Jerry Cope, CKA President (right)—Former Chang Moo Kwan Students of Chun Duk Ki
Gary Godbey, CKA Chairman (left) and Jerry Cope, CKA President (right)—Former Chang Moo Kwan Students of Chun Duk Ki

The original Carucado Board of Directors consisted of Chairman Gary Godbey, who held the highest rank of the four, President Jerry Cope, Keith Allen, and Lee Presnell. It could be that this reorganization was also related to the mutual interest of these four individuals in the art of Aikido. It is my understanding that Godbey  and Cope actually had black belts in this art, and all four are listed in the aforementioned CKA Directory as having “previous training” in Aikido. Moreover, this manual defines Carucado as “an eclectic style” influenced by Aikido.55 Interestingly, at the end of said manual, two effective Aikido arts—Irimi-nage and Tenchi-nage—are listed as “Ki Applications” of Carucado kata technique. The circular motion and evasive kuzushi of Aikido is very similar to the old Northern Chuan-fa in terms of its self-defense principles, extension of ki, proper balance of power and fluidity, and redirection of force. I find it interesting that as In Yoon Byung originally valued a proper balance of hard and soft art, so this same conviction endured thirty years later in North Carolina through a tradition undoubtedly tied to Chang Moo Kwan via the Green Book’s Chun Duk Ki. Like original Carucado kata, The Twelve taught in San Pedro, California are ripe with soft, circular, and evasive bunkai application, including Aikido’s irimi-nage and tenchi-nage.

In tracing the link between Chang Moo Kwan and Carucado, some additional statements from my 1995 Carolina Karate Association Manual & Directory are worthy of note.  Under Organizational Purposes and Goals, it reads; “Allowing students to pursue Karate according to his or her own interests and abilities.”  This is simply another way of saying what Nam Suk Lee summed up in two words when he succinctly defined Chang Moo Kwan: “cultivating capabilities.”  Another one of these listed goals is “Emphasizing competition with one’s self rather than against others.”  Later, under General Policy, the manual states: “Tournament participation is not required” and that all tournament practice (i.e. martial sport) is to be done “outside of regular class time.”  This is the spirit of Chun Duk Ki and the aforementioned mission statement of one of his original students.  Moreover, it indicates, at least on paper, that what Nam Suk Lee desired before his death—the preservation of Chang Moo Kwan outside the framework of international sporting competition—was transpiring, or an attempt was at least being made to that end, with the establishment of the Carolina Karate Association.  One final statement from the Philosophy of the Carolina Karate Association Hierarchy in this manual is worthy of note:  “Each instructor is the MASTER of his/her own school and students.  It is not the business or intent of the Carolina Karate Association to become involved in the day to day teaching practices, priorities, or liabilities, of its instructors.”  This open-mindedness, at least on paper, reflects the same spirit of open-mindedness to martial arts that Kanken Toyama amazingly showed toward In Yoon Byung at Nihon University, an open-mindedness that was later undoubtedly shared between Byung and his students.  By the 1980’s, the Carolina Karate Association had dojos at YMCA’s in Salisbury, Mocksville, Greensboro, and Catawba County, North Carolina.56

In 1984, a humble, middle-aged and talented martial artist with a background in both Taekwondo and Tomiki Aikido joined the Carucado school in Catawba County.  Despite his skill and background and much like In Yoon Byung at Nihon University, he simply wanted to learn.  At the time, Keith Allen, an accomplished martial artist and one of original CKA directors who had earned his black belt under the auspices of Chun Duk Ki, was the head instructor at this school.

sensei larry beal

Sensei Larry Beal (circa 1987)
Sensei Larry Beal (circa 1987)

Larry Beal was born in 1944, two years before In Yoon Byung opened his dojo at the Cho-Sun YMCA in Seoul, Korea. During a period of service in the United States Army, Mr. Beal was introduced to Taekwondo and earned his brown belt. He was talented and very skilled, but he disdained the competition and sporting elements associated with the art. During the ensuing year, his love of martial arts, like that of Nam Suk Lee after he found Funakoshi’s discarded textbook, compelled him to read, to study, and to practice, often without accountability or formal training. Sometime prior to 1980, Larry Beal did earn a brown belt in Tomiki Aikido under Jack Mumpower.

Jesse Boyd visits with Sensei Jack Mumpower (age 79) in his home in January of 2016. one of the nicest and meekest martial artists you will ever meet. At 79 years old, he could still move with a quickness and cat-like reflexes that were astounding.
Jesse Boyd visits with Sensei Jack Mumpower in his home in January of 2016. At 79 years of age, he could still move with quickness and cat-like reflexes that were simply astounding.

Mumpower is very important in terms of martial arts history in North Carolina. While serving in the United States Air Force, he was stationed in Tokyo, Japan and started learning Aikido from Kenji Tomiki (1900-1979) and Hideo Ohba (1910-1986) at Fuchu Air Station.57 He trained with these martial arts masters four days a week for more than two years, and he was regarded by them as one of their best American students. Upon completing his military service, Mr. Mumpower returned to the United States, but not before attaining the rank of Nidan in Aikido under Tomiki and Ohba’s tutelages, the very first American to do so.58 When he traveled home, he carried with him the blessing of his teacher to pass on what he had learned in the United States. Almost immediately thereafter, Jack opened a dojo in is home in Charlotte, North Carolina–the very first Tomiki Aikido school in the United States. And, he did so with Tomiki’s promise to support the promotions and ranks that Mr. Mumpower deemed worthy. In fact, Jack’s early black belts received certificates sent back from Japan bearing Kenji Tomiki’s signature.59 The Charlotte school grew and eventually moved into its own rented space at which time Sensei Larry Beal began his Aikido training.  Unfortunately, at some point, Jack Mumpower’s job forced him to move to Atlanta, and Mr. Beal was once more without a teacher and unable to wear a black belt.60

Sensei Larry Beal (standing, second from left) poses with Carucado Yudansha following his Shodan test. Gary Godbey is standing on the far left, and Jerry Cope is standing second from the right.
Sensei Larry Beal (standing, second from left) poses with Carucado Yudansha following his Shodan test. Gary Godbey is standing on the far left, and Jerry Cope is standing second from the right.

Around 1983, he hooked up with Gary Godbey and Keith Allen of the Carolina Karate Association, presumably because of their mutual love and respect for Aikido and a shared connection to Jack Mumpower. Larry started training primarily at Mr. Allen’s dojo which met at the Conover YMCA in Catawba County.  Around the time he earned his green belt in Carucado, there was some impropriety in the CKA; and to the associations’s credit, the offending parties were rightfully expelled. As a result, a Carucado dojo pretty much ceased to exist at the local YMCA. Larry Beal, though holding only a green belt rank in Carucado at the time and suddenly and yet again without a local dojo and a local instructor, did have a background in Taekwondo and Tomiki Aikido; and he had shown amazing natural talent coupled with humility and a remarkable ability to teach.  So, he was entrusted by Gary Godbey and Jerry Cope, Chang Moo Kwan students of Chun Duk Ki and the two of the founding members of the Carolina Karate Association, with opening a Carucado dojo in 1984 at a Lion’s Club facility in Balls Creek, North Carolina. On September 28, 1987, he was finally awarded that elusive shodan rank, though many understood his skills and abilities to have far surpassed this.

In 1989, Sensei Beal wanted to finish what he started with Aikido and started training with Sensei Larry Hildebrand at the Hildebran Aikido Club. Mr. Hildebrand is also very important in terms of Tomiki Aikido history in North Carolina. More than anyone else, his dedication to the art, his humility, and his open-mindedness is responsible for not only preserving into the 21st Century a pure strain of what Mr. Mumpower brought from Japan in 1960, but also of facilitating its growth beyond traditional restraints.61 In 1992, Larry Beal earned his black belt in Tomiki Aikido while continuing to teach Carcucado with its Chang Moo Kwan tradition in Catawba County. Over the years, he would eventually attain a Godan rank in Tomiki Aikido, and he and Sensei Hildebrand, two amazing martial artists from different backgrounds, would share knowledge and support each other’s schools, much like In Yoon Byung and Kanken Toyama of old. In fact, when I interviewed Mr. Hildebrand on August 29, 2014 about my sensei, he said: “Larry Beal was my best friend in the whole world.”62

Sensei Larry Beal and Sensei Larry Hildebrand
Sensei Larry Beal and Sensei Larry Hildebrand
Larry Beal demonstrates kata at his 1984 Carucado Shodan test.
Larry Beal demonstrates kata at his 1984 Carucado Shodan test.
Sensei Beal awards a promotion certificate at the Ball’s Creek Lion’s Club.
Sensei Beal awards a promotion certificate at the Ball’s Creek Lion’s Club.

On August 5, 1990, Larry Beal awarded his very first Carucado student, Joseph Randall, the rank of Shodan.63 Joseph was a close friend of my cousin, and his black belt test was the occasion for the persistent nagging that finally convinced this author to visit the Ball’s Creek dojo and begin martial arts training under Sensei Larry Beal. The first thing my instructor did was hand me a copy of the Carolina Karate Association Student Manual with its mysterious family tree that paid homage to In Yoon Byung, Nam Suk Lee, and Chang Moo Kwan.

An Old Occupancy Certificate for Newton Martial Arts Center in Newton, NC.
An Old Occupancy Certificate for Newton Martial Arts Center in Newton, NC.

In late 1991, Larry Beal and Larry Hildebrand decided to partner together and renovate a run-down facility at 23A East A Street in downtown Newton, NC. Larry Beal wanted to relocate his Carucado school to a more suitable location, and Larry Hildebrand wanted to open a second Aikido dojo in the area. By the start of 1992, both Newton Martial Arts (Carucado) and  the Newton Aikido Club (Tomiki Aikido) were simultaneously established at the Newton Martial Arts Center.  At the time, the author of this thesis wore a green belt in Carucado.

newton martial arts

The Newton Martial Arts Patch
The Newton Martial Arts Patch

A change in dojo location fueled an intense desire in Sensei Larry Beal to keep learning martial arts so that he could better feed his students. Having already taught the circular motion, the redirection of force, and the evasive kuzushi principles of Aikido to his students, he also began to introduce key self-defense principles from the arts of Isshin-ryu, Kyoshu-Jitsu, Tuite, and Small Circle Jujitsu into his Carucado dojo, thus hoping to reignite the spirit of cheonjikido that first characterized the training and teaching of In Yoon Byung, the personage at the top of the dojo family tree, a spirit that had sadly grown stagnant in the Carolina Karate Association before it was even two decades old. For this, Larry Beal was ostracized in the association, denied well-deserved promotion, and pressured to conform, despite the promise of the aforementioned statement from the Philosophy of the Carolina Karate Association Hierarchy. Like Nam Suk Lee when he moved to San Pedro and first retired from martial arts, my instructor was fed up with the politics, the egos, and the watered-down training.

Immediately following the promotion of three students64 to black belt on March 29, 1992, a promotion which Gary Godbey and Jerry Cope (i.e. former Chang Moo Kwan students of Chun Duk Ki) attended, Newton Martial Arts was forced to cut ties with the Carolina Karate Association and become independent. Concurrently, Larry Beal also began helping at the Newton Aikido Club and was instrumental in the instruction and promotion of key students who would eventually take over that school.  He would eventually attain the rank of Godan in Tomiki Aikido.

Larry Beal (seated) is pictured, from right to left, with the late Master Wally Jay (Small Circle Jujitsu), George Dillman (Kyusho Jitsu), and Masters Remy Presas, and Remy Presas Jr. (Arnis).
Larry Beal (seated) is pictured, from right to left, with the late Master Wally Jay (Small Circle Jujitsu), George Dillman (Kyusho Jitsu), and Masters Remy Presas, and Remy Presas Jr. (Arnis).

In 1994, Sensei Beal started traveling more, so he turned over the primary teaching responsibilities of the Newton Martial Arts dojo to Paul Langford, assuming more of an oversight role (i.e. much like In Yoon Byung did with Nam Suk Lee in the Seoul YMCA dojo before 1950 and as Lee later did with Kim Pyung Soo around 1957). During this time, Mr. Beal would visit and train with many renowned martial artists, including, but no limited to: George Dillman, Wally Jay, Remy Presas, Ricky Moneymaker, and Darryl Pope.65 Often, these would come to conduct seminars at the Newton Martial Arts Center. And, little of this was for Mr. Beal’s own benefit; it was mostly for his students.  Devin Hildebrand, son of Larry Hildebrand and a very accomplished Aikidoist himself who served as head instructor at the Newton Aikido Club for many years and holds a Rokudan rank, put it this way: “Larry Beal was a true martial artist because he put others first.  He was one of the most compassionate, mild-mannered, and profound teachers I ever met, even more so than most of the well-known personalities from whom he learned.  He taught good principles; he had no ego; and he let students be themselves.  Those are the marks of a good teacher.”66 I then proceeded to ask Mr. Hildebrand:  “If there is one thing that I should strive to model as I attempt to be a successful martial artist and carry on my sensei’s legacy, what should it be?”  His answer was succinct but powerful:  “His character.”67 Truly, Larry Beal etched a legacy during these years that would eventually cement him as the single most influential martial artist in the entire Cheonjikido lineage, not simply because of his martial arts genius, but also because he always taught humbly and within the framework of a biblical worldview.

On October 22, 1994, Jesse Boyd, the author of this thesis, earned the rank of Shodan. Looking back, he was to be the last of the Newton Martial Arts’ yudansha to receive a black belt under the direct patronage of Sensei Beal.

Sensei Boyd (left) & Sensei Langford (right) at Newton Martial Arts
Sensei Boyd (left) & Sensei Langford (right) at Newton Martial Arts

From late-1994 on, Paul Langford (primary) and Jesse  Boyd (secondary) assumed management of Newton Martial Arts, accountable to Larry Beal’s executive oversight.  While Sensei Boyd was attending graduate school in Wake Forest, North Carolina (1997-1999), he also started a weekend class and worked with students at a local karate school, teaching Chang Moo Kwan, Aikido, and Kyusho Jitsu principles that he had learned from Sensei Beal. Later, while completing his seminary studies in Mill Valley, California (2001-2003), Jesse Boyd opened Golden Gate Martial Arts, a Carucado school, on the seminary campus. Before moving away from the San Francisco Bay Area, his two original students earned the rank of blue belt.

Jesse Boyd is awarded the rank of Sandan in Carucado; Pictured (left to right) are Larry Peters, Paul Langford, Jesse Boyd, Larry Beal.
Jesse Boyd is awarded the rank of Sandan in Carucado; Pictured (left to right) are Larry Peters, Paul Langford, Jesse Boyd, Larry Beal.

In 2000, against the advice of Larry Beal and Jesse Boyd, Paul Langford clandestinely offered to reunite the Newton Martial Arts dojo with the Carolina Karate Association, securing promise from the controlling influences of Gary Godbey and Jerry Cope (former Chang Moo Kwan students of Chun Duk Ki and original founders of the CKA) that the Newton dojo’s spirit of cheonjikido would be honored, accepted, and to an extent, embraced. This relationship worked well for several years and showed true promise. On January 2, 2003, the author was awarded the rank of Sandan in Carucado by the Carolina Karate Association; and that certificate bears the signature of Master Gary Godbey, something I deem to be of great value. I was truly privileged to know Mr. Godbey personally and to learn from him during our time of reunion with the CKA. His deep insight into seemingly simple kata and technique was astounding, and these keys were very instrumental in my ability to later see the wellspring of technique within the seemingly simple movements of the twelve indigenous Chang Moo Kwan forms discussed in this thesis.  I will forever be grateful to Sensei Godbey and the role he has played in preserving the Chang Moo Kwan heritage here in North Carolina. Without a doubt, the knowledge he shared with me in some way bore the marks of his instructor, Chun Duk Ki who died in Edmonton, Alberta on December 20, 2001.

During these “golden years” per se, the Newton Martial Arts dojo under the leadership of Langford and Boyd, and with the blessings of Larry Beal, Gary Godbey, and Jerry Cope, awarded two full Carucado black belts to Brandon Partee and Wesley Hedrick.  It was good to see growth in a school where, like In Yoon Byung’s dojo of old, the curriculum was complex and the training was severe.

By 2005, the relationship with the Carolina Karate Association had again soured, and Newton Martial Arts was in the same position it had found itself back in 1992.  Compiling a list of eighteen official grievances, Sensei Langford and Sensei Boyd made a last-ditch effort to salvage the relationship with the CKA.  For historical purposes, these are worthy of posting.  As for how this reflects the spirit of indigenous Chang Moo Kwan, the informed reader can decide for himself:

Sources of Dissatisfaction with the Carolina Karate Association

The following list of grievances constitutes, as a whole, the basis for Newton Martial Arts’ secession from the Carolina Karate Association.

  1. There has been a clear and undeniable degradation in standards and quality from the principles and values promulgated in 1986.
  2. The martial arts competency of students in other CKA schools is less than satisfactory; this is a reflection upon the quality of martial arts instruction being offered.
  3. Many CKA Black Belts exhibit little interest in actual training and demonstration of the skills they are attempting to teach; there seems to be little desire to teach by example.
  4. CKA Black Belts seem overtly critical of NMA students while failing to hold their own students to the same standards.
  5. There has been persistent failure on the part of CKA Black Belts to implement changes that the Black Belt Board has agreed upon.
  6. The worldview and underlying martial arts philosophies embraced by NMA Black Belts conflict with those promulgated by the CKA.
  7. CKA schools are consistently promoting students who are not ready and show little real evidence of having earned the rank they wear.
  8. The CKA has promoted Black Belts without informing NMA Black Belts of such important decisions.
  9. The CKA has failed to promote NMA Black Belts when such promotions are clearly warranted.
  10. NMA is uncomfortable with the arrogant attitude that is prevalent amongst CKA Black Belts. The constant berating of other styles and other dojos has grown wearisome, especially in view of CKA’s definite need for improvement in many areas.
  11. NMA has gone far above and beyond the call of duty when it comes to promoting the CKA and faithfully attending CKA functions. NMA has visited other CKA schools on a regular basis, and its Black Belts have been present at almost every Black Belt Board Meeting. This level of commitment is lacking in the other schools; it is a rare occasion for the Newton dojo to be visited; and work done by NMA Black Belts for the betterment of the style is disregarded.
  12. NMA Black Belts consistently train and attempt to better their martial arts skills for the sake of their students. NMA Black Belts have jobs, careers, and physical limitations to deal with, but training it still given its due place. This level of necessary commitment seems absent among other CKA Black Belts.
  13. CKA is too closed-minded when it comes to technique and martial arts principles, persistently dealing in absolutes. NMA, on the other hand, is committed to a more eclectic approach that regularly evaluates, considers, and embraces principles from other styles so as to better its own.
  14. The CKA has ceased from being any real service toward NMA students, and there is evidence that it is creating doubt in the mind of such as to the quality of the martial art that they are being taught. The source of this dissatisfaction springs from the inability of many CKA Black Belts to properly teach.
  15. NMA leadership is uncomfortable with the way in which many CKA Black Belts belittle their students.
  16. There has been an obvious breakdown in leadership in the CKA Black Belt Board. It takes far too long to come to a decision, and little seems to ever get done.
  17. The CKA, as a whole, does not measure up to the statements and declarations that it makes about itself.
  18. CKA leadership seems unable to deal with conflict in the Black Belt Board apart from anger and threatenings. NMA is also dissatisfied with the backbiting and unwillingness of Black Belts to go to the person with whom they have a conflict, thereby seeking resolution.

teashikido

The Teashikido Patch
The Teashikido Patch

Unfortunately, these were rejected; and permanent secession, at once, became unavoidable. Thus, in 2005, the style name was changed from Carucado to Teashikido68 and the Newton Martial Arts dojo embraced its own eclectic identity under the executive leadership of Paul Langford and Jesse Boyd.

Between 2005 and 2011, three students earned Teashikido black belts (Jimmy Randall, Kurtis Pittman, and Randy Hoosier). Moreover, in conjunction with Sensei Boyd’s global missionary work, Newton Martial Arts was given opportunity to conduct Teashikido seminars in foreign countries as a bridge for communicating the Gospel of the Lord Jesus Christ.  Things looked very bright.

Boyd conducts a Teashikido seminar in Cahul, Moldova (January, 2009)
Boyd conducts a Teashikido seminar in Cahul, Moldova (January, 2009)

Unfortunately, the outlook shifted terribly with the sudden passing of Sensei Larry Beal. He was tragically killed in a farming accident on November 15, 2010. I received the news while doing Christian ministry in Las Vegas, Nevada and was unable to attend the funeral. Notwithstanding, I penned these words to be read aloud at the service:

“The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places: how are the mighty fallen” (II Samuel 1:27).

I truly believed that Larry Beal was the best martial artist in the world, and it was an incredible honor to have been mentored by him. More important than skill, however, was the humble meekness that clothed his character and the selfless patience required to train the untamed punk I once was. Under Sensei Beal’s tutelage, the Lord taught me much that I have literally carried to the ends of the earth: wisdom that has often led away from precarious hazard and knowledge that continues to serve as a bridge for the bold proclamation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Thank you, my old friend. Newton Martial Arts and Teashikido is ever at a loss by your passing. May I and those you have entrusted be counted worthy to teach others as you have taught us.

“How are the mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perished” (II Samuel 1:27).

Of great comfort is my remembrance of once confronting the one who awarded me a black belt with the things of the Lord and the glorious Gospel. I rejoiced as my Sensei assured me that his faith and trust was in Christ alone. Almighty God is faithful to His promises and His Word is absolute truth, therefore see: “that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him . . . and so shall we ever be with the Lord” (I Thessalonians 4:13-17).

Sensei Beal, my old friend: You have seen the Blessed Saviour’s face, how can I not envy? I will look for you in the Kingdom.

“The righteous perisheth, and no man layeth it to heart: and merciful men are taken away, none considering that the righteous is taken away from the evil to come” (Isaiah 57:1).

Even so, come quickly, Lord Jesus.
Jesse Boyd, Yondan

Without warning, Teashikido and the Newton Martial Arts dojo had been deprived of its leader; we had lost our outside accountability. And sadly, it wasn’t long before the lengthy fraternity between Newton Martial Arts and the Newton Aikido Club soured, culminating with the relocation of the NMA dojo in December of 2011. Notwithstanding, Teashikido honored Sensei Beal with a postmortem promotion to the rank of Shichidan and labored for a time to faithfully preserve the spirit of cheonjikido he had caused to blossom and ripen in the Newton Martial Arts lineage, a lineage that began with In Yoon Byung, Nam Suk Lee, and Chang Moo Kwan, a lineage that also included the likes of Kenji Tomiki, Jack Mumpower, and Larry Hildebrand.

In 2012, following the relocation of the NMA dojo to a larger facility in downtown Newton, Sensei Jesse Boyd was awarded the rank of Godan by a panel of his martial arts peers, including Larry Beal’s daughter who stood in her father’s stead.  This would be his first dan certificate not bearing the signature of Sensei Larry Beal.

Sensei Boyd is awarded the rank of Godan by Teashikido Yudansha.
Sensei Boyd is awarded the rank of Godan by Teashikido Yudansha.

Despite this honor, Boyd found himself becoming increasingly troubled by what seemed in the school to be deviation from the spirit of cheonjikido and important principles instilled by Sensei Beal. Moreover, the increasing use of fancy titles like soke and shihan became an unsettling sign of the very self-interest and stagnancy that had already reared its head several times in the Teashikido lineage. Numerous attempts were made to settle these issues amongst Newton Martial Arts’ 3-panel Board of Directors, but to no avail. Amazingly, the same set of eighteen grievances presented to the Carolina Karate Association of dojos in 2005 seemed at once mirrored within one Teashikido school—history again repeating itself, and that almost comically, in this complicated lineage.

the art of cheonjikido

g12In January of 2013, with the spirit of cheonjikdo flickering, Jesse Boyd was forced to separate from Teashikido, and sadly, this move coincided with the official dissolution and disbandment of Newton Martial Arts, an entity established by Sensei Larry Beal with more than twenty years of heritage in downtown Newton, the County Seat of Catawba County, North Carolina.  Notwithstanding, Sensei Boyd immediately opened Catawba Valley Martial Arts in Hickory, dropped the title of shihan that had been awarded to him at the Newton Martial Arts dojo, and changed the style name from Teashikido to Cheonjikido–-all so as to continue learning, teaching, and developing martial arts in accordance with principles originally instilled in our lineage by In Yoon Byung and Nam Suk Lee and later ripened by Larry Beal.69 At this point, he also made it a top priority to revisit and strengthen ties with the two traditional arts, Chang Moo Kwan and Tomiki Aikido, that predominately and undoubtedly undergird the eclectic style as historically traced here and handed to him by his instructor.

Determination to this end was immediately demonstrated by Boyd’s efforts to restore a spirit of fraternity with some of the local Aikido dojos that likewise benefited from the immense martial knowledge and mentorship of Sensei Larry Beal. As a proverbial declaration that the spirit of cheonjikido requires outside accountability, Boyd willingly donned a white belt in Tomiki Aikido on the very floor where he received his black belt in Carucado back in 1994.

Nam Suk Lee works with Jon Wiedenman at the San Pedro dojo shortly before the Chang Moo Kwan patriarch's death.
Nam Suk Lee works with Jon Wiedenman at the San Pedro dojo shortly before the Chang Moo Kwan patriarch’s death.

Around this same time, a series of seemingly coincidental circumstances also sparked a mutually beneficial relationship between Catawba Valley Martial Arts and some of Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee’s last Chang Moo Kwan students70 and the traditional Chang Moo Kwan dojo in San Pedro, California. Thus, our dojo was was blessed to learn much about Nam Suk Lee, the other of the two cryptic names at the top of that old style family tree, and the relatively unknown last two years of his life, including his intense desire that the indigenous spirit of Chang Moo Kwan be faithfully preserved outside the sporting arenas of international Taekwondo organizations and his oft-repeated martial exhortation—cultivate capability. On October 28, 2013, Sensei Boyd traveled to San Pedro to meet the Chang Moo Kwan family and personally observe and obtain footage of the twelve indigenous Chang Moo Kwan katas that Nam Suk Lee revived and taught on that very floor that last two years of his life.71. Over the next two years, this relationship and outside accountability would grow and blossom.

Sensei Boyd (red) meets with some of the Chang Moo Kwan Yudansha in San Pedro, CA. Master David Johns is standing to Sensei Boyd’s right (October, 2013).
Sensei Boyd (red) meets with some of the Chang Moo Kwan Yudansha in San Pedro, CA. Master David Johns is standing to Sensei Boyd’s right (October, 2013).
The NAA Logo
The NAA Logo

In February of 2014, Catawba Valley Martial Arts was invited to join the National Aikido Alliance (NAA) of dojos by unanimous vote. Each of the schools that comprise this association were at some point profoundly affected by the knowledge and teaching of Sensei Larry Beal. Later that same month, and due to deeper camaraderie in terms of utilizing the practice of martial arts as a tool to point others toward faith in Jesus Christ, Jesse Boyd, at the request of his students, transferred his primary outside source of Aikido accountability to the Christian Aikido Association in Granite Falls, NC under the tutelage of Sensei Olan Tolbert (Shichidan). Mr. Tolbert had interacted and trained with Sensei Larry Beal for many years, and he has been known to oft repeat:  “Sensei Beal was not only my mentor, but a very good and true friend.”

Sensei Olan Tolbert (blue) is promoted by the NAA to 7th Dan in Aikido. Sensei Boyd is seated to his right; and Larry Hildebrand, Sensei Beal's best friend, is seated to Mr. Tolbert's left.
Sensei Olan Tolbert (blue) is promoted by the NAA to 7th Dan in Aikido. Sensei Boyd is seated to his right; and Larry Hildebrand, Sensei Beal’s best friend, is seated to Mr. Tolbert’s left (April 25, 2015).
Jon Wiedenmen's 9th Dan certificate signed by Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee
Jon Wiedenmen’s 9th Dan certificate signed by Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee

In April of 2015, Sensei Boyd again traveled to San Pedro, California, this time with one of his students. There, they had the privilege of teaching a couple of classes in the San Pedro Chang Moo Kwan and of spending quality personal time with Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman in his home and working out together in his personal dojang. Approximately four months before his death, Nam Suk Lee filled out and signed a certificate promoting Wiedenman to the rank of 9th Dan in Chang Moo Kwan. This was one of his last acts in a long life dedicated to the pursuit and preservation of martial arts. Lee kept this certificate and instructed his son to deliver it after his death. By default, the stewardship of traditional Chang Moo Kwan has been handed over to Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman and the other high-ranking black belts in Southern California who were privileged to be the last direct benefactors of one of the two Chang Moo Kwan appellations that appear at the top of the Cheonjikido Style Lineage. Catawba Valley Martial Arts’ relationship with these has thereby, in a sense, brought this history full circle.

Jon Wiedenman, Chang Moo Kwam 9th Dan, holds a portrait of his teacher, Nam Suk Lee.
Jon Wiedenman, Chang Moo Kwam 9th Dan, holds a portrait of his teacher, Nam Suk Lee.
Here Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman and Sensei Jesse Boyd are pictured holding the original Chang Moo Kwan Green Book in Mr. Wiedenman's personal dojo after a good workout.
Here, Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman and Sensei Jesse Boyd are pictured holding the original Chang Moo Kwan Green Book in Mr. Wiedenman’s personal dojo after a good workout.

On April 17, 2015, following a grueling test which included the demonstration of 18 forms, including The Twelve taught by Nam Suk Lee, an open presentation of the art of Cheonjikido, including both Chang Moo Kwan and Aikido principles, and the submission of a 192-page thesis before a panel of nine judges, four of whom were the last students of Chang Moo Kwan patriarch Nam Suk Lee, Jesse Boyd was awarded the rank of Shodan in traditional Chang Moo Kwan.

Eric Trent, one of Sensei Boyd's students, demonstrates Chang Moo Kwan principles found in the Art of Cheonjikido, before a panel of high-ranking Chang Moo Kwan instructors.
Eric Trent, one of Sensei Boyd’s students, tosses his instructor like a rag doll while demonstrating Chang Moo Kwan principles found in the Art of Cheonjikido before a panel of high-ranking Chang Moo Kwan instructors. Seated from left to right are pictured Master George Fullerton (8th Dan), Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman (9th Dan), and Master David Johns (7th Dan). Each of these men trained under Nam Suk Lee.
Jesse Boyd is awarded black belt rank in traditional Chang Moo Kwan at the Korean Friendship Bell in San Pedro, California. Pictured from left to right are Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman, Master George Fullerton, and Master David Johns.
Jesse Boyd is awarded black belt rank in traditional Chang Moo Kwan at the Korean Friendship Bell in San Pedro, California. Pictured from left to right are Grandmaster Jon Wiedenman, Master George Fullerton, and Master David Johns.
Jesse Boyd and Eric Trent present the San Pedro Chang Moo Kwan with a treasured jo staff.
Jesse Boyd and Eric Trent present the San Pedro Chang Moo Kwan with a treasured jo staff.

As a token of appreciation and a symbol of the fraternity that now exists between the Art of Cheonjikido and traditional Chang Moo Kwan, the Catawba Valley Martial Arts dojo presented the Chang Moo Kwan of San Pedro with a jo staff that had long been a part of our school, going back to the days when Sensei Larry Beal was alive. It is said the In Yoon Byung valued the staff and taught at least two forms, one from Chuan-fa and one he had learned from Master Toyama, in the early days of the Cho-Sun YMCA dojo in Seoul, Korea. These forms, of course, have been lost.  So, it is through the use of the jo via our Aikido influence, including at least seven kata, that we have been able to touch yet another angle of In Yoon Byung and the indigenous Chang Moo Kwan that appears at the top of our family tree.  Interestingly, both Catawba Valley Martial Arts and the San Pedro Chang Moo Kwan descend from the same source, and the presentation of this treasured staff was an acknowledgement of this and a show of respect to our martial arts brothers.

On May 5th, 2015, just a few weeks later,  Jesse Boyd passed another grueling test in which his students actively participated, this time for the formal rank of Shodan in Tomiki Aikido. This examination took place at the Christian Aikido Association in Granite Falls, NC before a panel of NAA black belts, some of which knew Sensei Larry Beal personally and loved him dearly.  During this historic moment, Sensei Larry Hildebrand (8th Dan) was asked to sit in the place of his old friend and Aikido student, Mr. Beal. This he did just as Larry Beal had done when Jesse Boyd earned his first black belt back in 1994.

Jesse Boyd formally receives his black belt in Tomiki Aikido. Seated are pictured four of his Cheonjikido students. Sensei Larry Hildebrand (blue) is standing with Sensei Olan Tolbert to his left, both longtime friends of Larry Beal.
Jesse Boyd formally receives his black belt in Tomiki Aikido on May 5, 2015. Seated are four of his Cheonjikido students. Sensei Larry Hildebrand (blue) is standing with Sensei Olan Tolbert to his left, both longtime friends of Sensei Larry Beal.

Thus, five years following the untimely death of Sensei Larry Beal and a little more than two years following the disbandment of Newton Martial Arts, Catawba Valley Martial Arts cemented the spirit of cheonjikido within its walls and formally, officially, and forever tied itself to both of its predominant traditional roots.  And, this all crescendoed together over a short period of weeks during the Spring of 2015.

To this day, Sensei Jesse Boyd continues to promote the spirit of cheonjikido at Catawba Valley Martial Arts and labor for the preservation and perpetuation of the martial arts principles and teachings handed to him by the late Sensei Larry Beal. This dojo, of which he is merely a steward, will forever value the outside accountability it receives from accomplished martial artists from the Chang Moo Kwan and Tomiki Aikido traditions. This accountability persists via continual teaching and training at the Christian Aikido Association, Catawba Valley Martial Arts’ sister dojo, active participation in the National Aikido Alliance in which Jesse Boyd currently serves as General Secretary, and by way of an ongoing relationship with the San Pedro Chang Moo Kwan and Nam Suk Lee’s last students.

Jesse Boyd and Eric Trent conduct a martial arts demonstration at Bible Bhawan Baptist Church in Delhi, India (June, 2015). Seated on the left is Anil Pundit, a former Aikido instructor.
Jesse Boyd and Eric Trent conduct a martial arts demonstration at Bible Bhawan Baptist Church in Delhi, India (June, 2015). Seated on the left is Anil Pundir, a former Aikido instructor.

Moreover, Sensei Boyd and his students continue to use martial arts as a tool to point others to faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, the only true and eternal Soke and Master in this life. Catawba Valley Martial Arts is regularly involved in conducting martial arts demonstrations and self-defense seminars around the world in partnership with various Bible-believing churches and missions organizations.

A successful martial artist must know where he came from to know where he is going; and if one values the lessons of history, his art is by default eclectic, pragmatic, and evolving. Those dojos that don’t know their history are doomed to repeat it; those that don’t know their history may be doomed NOT to repeat it. With these things in mind, we press on “building a martial arts house” (i.e. chang moo kwan) along the “path of harmony” (i.e. aikido) in the “way a heaven’s lake” (i.e. cheonjikido) and in a spirit of cultivating capability that honors those who have gone before.

Show 71 footnotes

  1. Any minor discrepancies in detail that may be found between this history presentation and the above-linked thesis are a result of further research conducted subsequent to the submission of this work in San Pedro, California in April of 2015. The author is making every effort to go back and revise the original thesis to match what is promulgated in this online chronicle. At such time that said revision is completed, an updated print version will be linked above
  2.  Manchuria is a geographical and historical region in modern-day Northeast China that is bordered by Outer & Inner Mongolia to the west, Russia to the north and east, and the Korean Peninsula to the southeast.  Historically, Manchuria also been referred to as Guandong which literally translates “east of the pass”, a reference to Shanhai Pass in Qinhuangdao in today’s Hebei province, at the eastern end of the Great Wall of China.
  3. Robert McLain, Grandmaster Yoon Byung-In (http://www.kimsookarate.com/intro/yoon/Byung_In_YoonrevMay3.pdf), 1.
  4. Chinese Chuan-fa, particularly the northern system, was the first eclectic martial art.
  5. At the time, most Chuan-fa instructors in that area were Mongolians.
  6. Karen Hoffman, Byung In Yoon: Another Story (http://www.kimsookarate.com/contributions/yoonstory.html), 1.
  7. Kim Pyung Soo was one of Nam Suk Lee’s original students who also learned from In Yoon Byung. In 1968, he immigrated to Houston, TX where he continued to teach an art that sought to closely preserve the forms and techniques from indigenous Chang Moo Kwan, apart from the international sporting elements that have come to characterize Taekwondo. As far as the author knows, Mr. Soo is still living in Texas. It was Mr. Soo who would later visit In Yoon Byung’s family in South Korea and learn about his fate during and after the Korean War.
  8. Hoffman, 1.
  9. Kim Pyung Soo, Personal Interview with In Yoon Byung’s Family (December 18, 2005).
  10. Ibid.
  11. McLain, Grandmaster Yoon Byung-In, 2.
  12.  Anko Itosu (1831-1915) is often referred to as the “Father of Modern Karate.” He was the primary protege of the great Sokon Matsumura and was the first to introduce the Shuri-te tradition to Okinawan schools as early as 1901.  In October of 1908, Itosu wrote a letter to draw the attention of the Japanese Ministries of Education and War to the value of teaching martial arts in the public schools. Not only was this letter very influential in the spread of karate, but it communicated a spirit of martial arts eclecticism, acknowledging value in both Shorin-ryu (i.e. Shuri-te), Itosu’s own tradition, and Shorei-ryu (i.e. Naha-te). Also, this letter’s opening statement is clear historical proof from an original source that karate is not Buddhist, neither was it tied in its historical development to manmade religion.  From this letter are derived what have become known as Itosu’s Ten Precepts of Karate.
  13.  Some believe that Toyama actually outranked Funakoshi because there is no record of the latter ever bearing the title shihandai.
  14. Hoffman, 1.
  15.  McLain, Grandmaster Yoon Byung-In, 2.
  16. Ibid.
  17.  Kushanku is also known as Kanku-dai.
  18.  McLain, Grandmaster Yoon Byung-In, 3.
  19.  Darrell Cook, World Chang Moo Kwan, Where Do We Really Come From? (http://www.changmookwan.net/changmookwanhistory/historyofchangmookwan.html), 13.
  20.  McLain, Master Yoon Byung-In’s Legacy, 1
  21.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chang_Moo_Kwan
  22.  McLain, Master Yoon Byung-In’s Legacy, 3.
  23. Ibid.
  24.  McLain, Grandmaster Yoon Byung-In, 3-4.
  25.  James & Sandra Dussault, “Grandmaster Nam Suk Lee: Patriarch of the Chang Moo Kwan Part 1,” Inside Tae Kwon Do (October, 1993), 48.
  26. Cook, 13.
  27.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nam_Suk_Lee
  28. Ibid.
  29.  Jon Wiedenmen, Personal Interview with Nam Suk Lee (2000).
  30. Cook, 13.
  31.  Ibid. See also John Corcoran & Emil Farkas, The Original Martial Arts Encyclopedia, New & Revised Edition (West Hollywood, CA: Trans-Euro Film Trust, 2011), 128.
  32. Dussault, 48.
  33. Ibid., 49
  34.  McLain, Master Yoon Byung-In’s Legacy, 4.
  35.  The Kangduk Won was founded following a disagreement between Nam Suk Lee and Kim Soon Bae with Hong Jung Pyo and Park Chul Hee. This happened sometime in 1956 when Lee was promoted to 4th Dan in Chang Moo Kwan and Park to the rank of Sandan. It’s unclear what this disagreement was about, but it unquestionably led to Hong and Park separating from the Chang Moo Kwan and opening up their own school in a nearby neighborhood of Seoul (Cook, 13-14). All of these men were connected to In Yoon Byung, and both of these dojos “shared the same lineage and curriculum” (McLain, Master Yoon Byung-In’s Legacy, 4).
  36. Ibid.
  37.  Robert McLain (Master Yoon Byung-In’s Legacy, 4) lists in chart form a number of katas that have come down from Kim Pyung Soo. The Chuan-fa side of the chart lists several forms already mentioned earlier in this thesis. On the Shudokan Karate (i.e. Kanken Toyama) side of the chart, the list interestingly includes “Kibon Hyung 1-3,” “Pyung Ahn 1-5,” “Chulki Hyung 1-3” and “Kong Sang Kun.”  Nomenclature suggests that these are related in some way to at least ten of The Twelve taught or acknowledged by Lee in San Pedro, therefore supporting the author’s conviction that these forms represent indigenous Chang Moo Kwan.
  38.  McLain, Grandmaster Yoon Byung-In, 4.
  39.  http://www.kimsookarate.com/gallery-present/06_Yoon/06_Yoon.htm
  40.  The Green Book: On the Occasion of the 30th Anniversary of Founding (Sep. 1. 1946~Sep. 1. 1976) (Taekwondo Changmookwan, 1976), 16.
  41.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nam_Suk_Lee
  42.  George Fullerton, “Passing the Torch,” Tae Kwon Do Times (January, 2002), 50.
  43.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nam_Suk_Lee.
  44. Dobok is the Korean term for martial arts uniform
  45.  Some old photos from the Salisbury dojo can be seen here: http://clementskaratedojo.com/lineage.html.  Note the style patches, the free fighting without gear, and the absence of any tournament trophies.
  46.  http://clementskaratedojo.com/index.html (emphasis mine)
  47.  James Clements trained with many renowned martial arts masters over the years and founded the National Kamibushihinkai Organization in 1981.  As far as I know, he still runs the Clements Karate Dojo near Claremont, North Carolina. His website has some interesting old photos of Chun Duk Ki (http://clementskaratedojo.com/lineage.html).
  48.  At http://clementskaratedojo.com/lineage.html, one of the old photos of Master Ki is captioned “Chung Duk Ki Early 1970’s” and shows him teaching in a school with a Korean and a Canadian flag on the wall.
  49.  The Green Book: On the Occasion of the 30th Anniversary of Founding (Sep. 1. 1946~Sep. 1. 1976) (Taekwondo Changmookwan, 1976), 182.
  50.  “Dogwood Festival Program,” Statesville Record & Landmark (Statesville, NC: April 14, 1969), Microfiche, 10 {emphasis mine}.
  51.  James Clements, founder of the National Kamibushihinkai Organization, eventually earned a Sandan rank under Chun Duk Ki.
  52.  These four individuals were Gary Godbey (June 1, 1974), Jerry Cope (September 26, 1974), Keith Allen (September, 1975), and Lee Presnell (September, 1975).
  53.  An ad from the Lexington Dispatch dated January 15, 1980 and entitled “Self Defense Courses Offered” reads: “Instructor Richard Yount from Salisbury . . . holds a third degree black belt in karate from the Southern Karate Association” {“Self Defense Courses Offered,” Lexington Dispatch (Lexington, NC: Jan 15, 1980), Microfiche, 3}. Apparently Yount, one of Chun Duk Ki’s black belts, was still teaching as late as 1980, but there is no indication from this article that the SKA was still in existence.
  54.  This style designation stood for Carolina Unarmed Combative Defense Organization.
  55.  Tomiki Aikido was originally brought to North Carolina by Jack Mumpower. Mumpower was a student of Kenji Tomiki and Hideo Obha in Japan. He relocated to Charlotte, NC and began teaching there in 1960. All Aikido taught in North Carolina at this time was necessarily connected to Mr. Mumpower, so the Carolina Karate Association, by default,  bore direct descent, not only with In Yoon Byung, Nam Suk Lee, and indigenous Chang Moo Kwan, but also with indigenous Tomiki Aikido brought to North Carolina by an American student of the Japanese founders.
  56.  It’s interesting to recall that the very first Chang Moo Kwan dojo was likewise opened in a YMCA.
  57.  Kenji Tomiki was a student of Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969), the O’Sensei and father of Aikido. He is credited with systematizing Ueshiba’s Aikido principles and, as a result of the religious mysticism that negatively affected the practical effectiveness of Ueshiba’s teaching in his latter years, of renewing an emphasis on Aikido’s Aiki-Jujutsu foundation while introducing elements from his own extensive background in Judo (Tomiki was a student of Jigoro Kano, the founder of Judo, in the 1920’s). Tomiki Aikido, also referred to as Shodokan differs from traditional aikido in its greater stress on combative atemi (i.e. blows or strikes), compact motion (i.e. as opposed to the drawn-out movements of the Hombu styles), and free-form randori (i.e. free fighting). Tomiki is also credited with arranging aikido technique into numbered sets, or two-man kata. These kata were designed to promote development in both free-fighting and aikido technique.  Hideo Ohba was one of Tomiki’s first students and also learned under O’Sensei Ueshiba.
  58.  Jack Mumpower, Personal Interview with the Author (January 13, 2016). Some time after Kenji Tomiki’s death, Jack Mumpower visited Japan and was awarded the rank of 6th dan in Aikido by Tomiki’s wife. During this interview, the author saw and handled the Rokudan certificate presented to Jack Mumpower by Tomiki’s wife in Japan following the patriarch’s death. It was all in Japanese.
  59. Jack Mumpower, Personal Interview (January 31, 2016).
  60.  Larry Hildrebrand (Hachidan, Aikido), Personal Interview with the Author (August 29, 2014).
  61.  Sonny Lackey, another student of Jack Mumpower, opened an Aikido dojo in Hickory, NC around 1978 as a Nidan. Larry Hildebrand was one of Lackey’s first students and greatly benefited from a lot of personal time with Jack Mumpower who would come up from Charlotte and teach at the Hickory dojo twice a week. In 1983, the Hickory dojo moved to Icard, and Sonny Lackey quit the art five months later because of some personal difficulties. Larry Hildebrand then opened the Hildebran Aikido Club in the neighboring community of Hildebran, NC in 1984. Over the years, the Hildebran Aikido Club would produce a number of quality Aikido instructors, including Sensei Larry Beal
  62. Larry Hildrebrand (Hachidan, Aikido), Personal Interview (August 29, 2014).
  63.  Joseph Randall later had an extensive career in the United States Navy and nows faithfully serves as the pastor of Olney Baptist Church in Philadelphia, PA.
  64.  Richard Matsuda, Paul Langford, and Cher Beal (Larry Beal’s daughter)
  65.  Darryl Pope, a well-known local specialist in Isshin-ryu actually joined the Newton Martial Arts dojo for a time and was immediately allowed to wear the rank of red belt, a practice Mr. Beal started as a way of respecting accomplished martial artists from other traditions and in hopes of encouraging them to share their knowledge within the framework of regular classes. Pope’s participation in the Newton dojo from 1993-1994 was very instrumental and beneficial in the author’s training.  At Jesse Boyd’s Shodan test in October of 1994, Darryl Pope sat as a judge with his Isshin-ryu rank.
  66.  Devin Hildebrand (Rokudan, Aikido), Personal Interview with the Author (August 29, 2014).
  67. Ibid.
  68.  Teashikido is Japanese for “way of hand and foot energy” and is basically a Japanese coinage of the Korean Taekwondo.
  69.  A detailed explanation of Cheonjikido’s style name and style patch and the connection of these to Larry Beal, In Yoon Byung, and Nam Suk Lee can be found HERE.
  70. Grandmaster Jon Wiedenmen, 9th Dan; Master George Fullerton, 8th Dan; and Master David Johns, 7th Dan
  71. Collectively, we refer to these forms as The Twelve, and they are presently required learning at Catawba Valley Martial Arts in Hickory, NC. For each belt, a student is required to learn one of the Cheonjikido forms along with one of The Twelve up to the rank of Shodan. Chulgi-il and Gensu-gensa are required learning for the rank of Nidan.